Why Low Dose DMSO is NOT Safe
I have compiled the following research regarding DMSO, in order to allow people to make a more informed decision about whether to use this substance which has been marketed to this community as a safe solvent in supplements.

Low dose DMSO is toxic to the eyes:

"Here, we demonstrate that DMSO induces retinal apoptosis in vivo at low concentrations (5 μl intravitreally dosed DMSO in rat from a stock concentration of 1, 2, 4, and 8% v/v). Toxicity was confirmed in vitro in a retinal neuronal cell line,"

"The present study suggests that DMSO induces apoptosis via inhibiting mitochondrial respiration and increasing intracellular calcium."

"Our finding that at concentrations <10% (v/v), DMSO is toxic is unexpected. These results underline safety concerns of using low concentrations of DMSO as a solvent for in vivo administration of numerous molecules, which we show not to be safe. We believe that the scientific community should question the use of DMSO in biological assays, with particular relevance to delivery to neuronal cells. Finally, due to the broad number of drugs dissolved in DMSO, we believe these results have widespread implications, not only in the eye and in neuroscience, but also throughout the whole body." (http://m.fasebj.org/content/28/3/1317.long)

DMSO inhibits the bodies natural production of steroids:

"When incubated in the presence of 5% DMSO, MA-10 cells demonstrated an almost complete inhibition of progesterone production...

Although the mechanism of action by which DMSO inhibits steroidogenesis remains unknown, these results show that its action results in the complete cessation of synthesis of the StAR protein, which is required for the acute regulation of steroidogenesis in MA-10 cells." (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/7789324/)

"In the brain, DMSO produced significant changes in the CYP11beta gene expression at d 7 compared to d 3 after exposure. These changes in the levels of StAR, P450scc, and CYP11beta mRNA levels in important steroidogenic organs suggest that the experimental animals are experiencing a time-dependent impaired steroidogenesis." (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/17365614/)

Low dose DMSO is toxic to the developing brain(Isn't it always developing?):

"DMSO produced widespread apoptosis in the developing mouse brain at all ages tested. Damage was greatest at P7. Significant elevations above the background rate of apoptosis occurred at the lowest dose tested, 0.3 ml/kg. In an in vitro rat hippocampal culture preparation, DMSO produced neuronal loss at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%. The ability of DMSO to damage neurons in dissociated cultures indicates that the toxicity likely results from a direct cellular effect." (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682536/)

"The damage observed with DMSO is at least as severe as that seen with ethanol, suggesting that DMSO-induced apoptosis might also produce significant learning and memory deficits." (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2682536/)

DMSO is toxic to inner ear hair cells:

"The amphipathic molecule dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is a solvent often used to dissolve compounds applied to the inner ear; however, little is known about its potential cytotoxic side effects. To address this question, we applied 0.1 to 6% DMSO for 24 h to cochlear organotypic cultures from postnatal day 3 rats and examined its cytotoxic effects. DMSO concentrations of 0.1% and 0.25% caused little or no damage. However, concentrations between 0.5 and 6% resulted in stereocilia damage, hair cell swelling and a dose-dependent loss of hair cells...

Most hair cell death was associated with nuclear shrinkage and fragmentation, morphological features consistent with apoptosis." (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2262105/)

DMSO is very difficult for the body to excrete, allowing the dosage to build up with consistent usage:

"The elimination half-time in man is about four days, and in rats is six to eight hours (92). With cutaneous application, elimination half-time is prolonged by about one third (92). (https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=c...kin=mobile)

"An oral dose of 1g/kg-body weight results in peak plasma concentrations in 4- 6 hours, and detectable levels persisted for 400 hours." (http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/cgi/viewconten...terinarian)

DMSO lowers body temperature:

"Like this compound, it increases hexobarbital sleeping time of mice,' lowers body temperature and decreases spontaneous motor activity of mice." (http://archive.is/09xEs)

According to Ray Peat, once something is dissolved in DMSO, it immediately begins to decompose into allergenic and unknown compounds:

"People often forget that it has an intrinsic oxidative effect when they are thinking of it as just a solvent, to transport drugs. I saw a product sold as eye drops, consisting of vitamin C and glutathione in DMSO. Each of those reductants, in the presence of DMSO, immediately breaks down into other substances, and the composition changes continually over a long period. There has been very little investigation of the actual composition of solutions of DMSO with other substances. At least some of the mixtures will produce sulfite and metabisulfite, which are very allergenic for some people." (http://raypeatforums.org/showthread.php?tid=15)

This study corroborates the instability of DMSO when it is combined with other substances:

"As expected, sample loss occurred with prolonged storage. After 3 months of storage at room temperature, the probability of observing the compound is 92%, and after 6 months the probability is 83%. After 1 year in DMSO, the probability of observing the target compound is reduced to 52%. These data are consistent with our initial prestudy experiment for which the degradation rate was determined to be approximately 18% after a 5-month storage period" (http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1...7103252617)

Lastly, Ray Peat has made the following warning about DMSO:
"Its ability to release histamine and nitric oxide and to inhibit cholinesterase (articles below) suggest that its use shouldn’t be prolonged." (http://raypeatforums.org/showthread.php?tid=15)
"The true method of knowledge is experiment." -William Blake

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